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Ruslan Dzuba - Dipl. Architect, Chief Architect at PE "Svetlichnyi" and Olga Nosenko - Dipl. Engineer, Founder of Passive House -IGUA

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Description of the idea and the concept of the Passive House project.

Design of a Passive House in the village of Lozen, located in the suburbs of Sofia that is economical and has extremely low energy consumption.

Lozen is a village in West Bulgaria, in Sofia Municipality, Sofia Region located near Lozen Mountain - a small but interesting mountain in the immediate proximity of the capital. Although it has been outshined by the more impressive Vitosha Mountain, Lozen has yet to show its beauty. It is a place with rich history but too little research has been conducted so far.

Village Lozen is known by its many ancient Orthodox Churches and Monasteries, and beautiful nature.

Energy efficiency in buildings

One of the key means to reach the goal of emitting 50-85 % less CO2 by 2050 is to reduce the energy consumption in buildings.

33 % of all energy in Europe is used by transportation, 26 % - by industry and 41 % - by buildings.

According to statistic, 80 % of energy consumption is used in small buildings  1000 m 2.

Heating and cooling are the main energy consumers in buildings and account for two thirds of a building’s total energy consumption.

Bulgaria (officially the Republic of Bulgaria) is a parliamentary republic in Southeastern Europe with rich history, natural resources, and culture.

Most Bulgarians (72.5 per cent) reside in urban areas. Bulgaria has the highest home ownership rate in the world; about 97 per cent of the population lives in privately owned homes. There is also a very high rate of household appliance ownership, such as television sets, and telephones and relatively high rates for computers and automobiles. The average rates in all categories are substantially higher in Sofia.

Bulgaria adopted the Kyoto protocol and completed the protocol's objectives by reducing carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2009 by 30 per cent. However, pollution from factories and metallurgy works and severe deforestation continue to be major problems.

Urban areas are particularly affected mostly due to production of high level of CO2 by old buildings, energy production from coal-based power plants, and of automobile traffic.

The existing housing stock of Bulgaria is responsible for a large share of total energy consumption, and therefore many energy savings can be accomplished in these upcoming reconstruction and construction of new building activities. The old building stock needs to be refurbished or, in many cases, even demolished and new buildings erected.

The core focus of Passive House design is to dramatically reduce the requirement for space heating and cooling, and reduction of emission. This can be achieved without compromising comfort or needing to rely on the falling costs of renewable energy technologies.

A Passive House performance criteria:

Specifics of Building site

• Climate

Considering its small area, Bulgaria has an unusually variable and complex climate.

The country lies between the strongly contrasting continental and Mediterranean climatic zones.

The many valley basins scattered through the uplands have temperature inversions resulting in stagnant air.

Sofia is located in such a basin, but its elevation (about 530 metres ) tends to moderate summer temperature and relieve oppressive high humidity. Sofia is also sheltered from the northern European winds by the mountains that surround its troughlike basin.

Winters are very cold, and summers are warm. The coldest month is January, when the temperature can drop down to −22 °C in some places. The warmest month is July when the temperature through the day is about 30 °C. Sofia generally remains cooler than other parts of Bulgaria, due to the high altitude of the valley in which it is situated. Thunderstorms often occur during the summer season. The city receives around 650 millimetres annual precipitation with summer maximum and winter minimum.

An average Village Lozen elevation is of 735 m.

For the PHPP calculation of Passive House in Lozen we took Sofia climate data with applying Village Lozen elevation of 735 m that leads to correction average monthly temperatures by lowering them.

• Geotectonic conditions

Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, characterized by high seismicity, is exposed to a high seismic risk. From plate-tectonic

point of view, the Balkan Region is an element of the continental margin of Eurasia and is located between the stable part of the European continent to the north and the ophiolitic sutures to the South. The neotectonic movements on the Balkan Region are controlled by the extensional collapse of the late Alpine orogen, and are influenced by the extension behind the Aegean arc and by the complicated vertical and horizontal movements in the Pannonian region.

Over the centuries, Bulgaria has experienced strong earthquakes.

(Information and photo: “Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Bulgaria as a basis for a new

building code”, S. D. Simeonova1, D. E. Solakov1, G. Leydecker2, H. Busche2, T. Schmitt2, and D. Kaiser2

1Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Institute, Seismological Department, Sofia, Bulgaria

2Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany)

According to experiences of building industry of Bulgaria, reinforced concrete frame buildings with masonry walls have good resistance to earthquakes.

Passive House in Lozen, near Sofia, Bulgaria:

This dwelling is designed for a village Lozen in West Bulgaria, in Sofia Municipality, Sofia Region and protected at south and south-west by Lozen Mountain.

We aimed to design a beautiful 2-Story 3-bedrooms Single Family Passive House for family with 4 members. Our choice is a Passive House in a traditional Architectural Bulgarian Village style.

This passive house is ecologically friendly with using natural construction materials.

Key environmental strategies

1. Natural construction materials:

• reinforced concrete frame

• light concrete blocks YTONG ENERGO

• thermal insulation Rigid Polyurethane Foam Panels

• Wood and natural stone

2. Orientation of the building 30º south-west to optimize solar gains and to reduce overheating during summer.

3. Wooden construction of pergolas with summer plants for summer shading

4. Natural night ventilation through windows to prevent overheating during summer

5. QUICK STEP-Solar PV roof tile systems for hot water (DHW)

6. Rainwater harvesting for irrigation

7. Using highly energy-efficient household appliance to reduce specific primary energy demand

(DHW, Heating, Cooling, Auxiliary and Household Electricity), thus to save nautal resourses of Bulgaria

This Passive House has living room, kitchen-dinning room, master-bedroom, 2 bedrooms, master-bathroom, 2 full bathrooms, study and family areas, laundry, mechanical room with unheating garage outside of thermal envelope shell and with stair from a ground floor to a first floor inside of thermal envelope.

The house has a simply compact form with main windows installed on south and east façades that is the most preferable location for this building site and a local climate data.

PHPP calculation:

Climate data Sofia, Bulgaria with correction for Lozen Passive House building site altitude of 735 m

Treated Floor Area TFA: 159.7 m2

Enclosed Volume Ve: 840,9 m3

Surface Area: 557.0 m2

Footprint: 124.8 m2 (without garage)

Garage Area: 21.1 m2

Room high: 2.5 m

Total Floor Area: 174.7 m2

Room Ventilation Volume (ATFA*h) = 399 m3

Certified balanced PH Ventilation System with Heat Recovery Unit with Effective Heat Recovery Efficiency of 83 %

Effective Heat Recovery Subsoil Heat Exchanger with efficiency 93%

Certified energy-efficient Passive House windows and doors:

REHAU - Clima Design - with spacer 'Swisspacer':

frame Uf-Value=0.71 W/(m2K) , Thermal Bridge Installation=0,040 W/(m2K)

Passivhaus-Haustür REHAU-Brillant-Design – Door with glazings Uf-Value=0.79 W/(m2K)

Certified Passive House energy-efficient Glazing Low-E 0.60 N 52 - GUARDIAN Flachglas:

Ug-Value = 0,60 W/(m2K)

Thermal-bridge free design

Technical description and details

• General construction conseption: reinforced concrete frame buildings with strong geometrical form: columns 300x300 mm with step 4.5 m x 6.0 m, beams – 300x240 mm, floor slabs h=160 mm with masonry walls from light efficient concrete blocks YTONG ENERGO

• Reinforced concrete foundations

• Uninterrupted external envelop from thermal insulation Rigid Polyurethane Foam

• Thermal-bridge-free design with applying additonal layers of perimeter insulation at the ground floor slab and perimeters of reinforced concrete frame

• Airtight membrane to

• Footing and ground work is done on the building site according to design

plans and specifications.

• Floor and ceiling slabs, columns and beams are made of concrete reinforced

with structural steel.

• Walls are made of lightweight gas-concrete blocks YTONG ENERGO

• (produced in Germany by YTONG, and used in Bulgaria) or the similery gas-concrete blocks Aeroc produced in Ukriane (ООО "Аэрок") with possibility to develop manucacture of such lightweight gas-concrete blocks in Bulgaria.

• The blocks are reinforced with vertical structural steel elements. Walls are attached and anchored to the floor and ceiling slabs with heavy-duty steel fasteners.

• Suspended ceiling that allows to fasten and hide ventilation ducts and to lowering noise, thus improving hygienic condition of Passive House

• Certified energy-efficient Passive House windows and doors

• Certified balanced PH Ventilation System with Heat Recovery Unit with Effective Heat

Recovery Efficiency of 83 %

• Effective Heat Recovery Subsoil Heat Exchanger with efficiency 93%

• Slipping roof with wooden constructions covered with natural ceramic tile with beautiful angle windows allowing to get additional natural cross-ventilation and cooling of the first floor ceiling during summer time

• All electrical wiring and plumbing installations are built into the walls.

• Lower part of perimeter of ground floor are covered with natural stone

• Wooden structure of roof covering as specified in design.

• Wooden construction of pergolas at the entry doors at south and east sides of the building to add extra shading from summer plants during summer time

• Natural stone-wooden fence surrounding the building lot that is immerging into local landscape and architecture and compliments the Passive House

• QUICK STEP-Solar PV roof tile systems for hot water (DHW)

• Using highly energy-efficient household appliance

Verification of Passive House in Lozen, Bulgaria, Monthly Method: