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Liana Dwi Ariyani, Fransiska Damarratri, Annisa Putri Cinderakasih

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To every kind of climate, sun is an important source of energy. Solar energy can help a house to live out its task, as a shelter for people. But at times, like summer season, the solar radiation must be blocked away too. Careful solution choice for solar radiation will help to make an efficient system.
Bulgaria is a country that is located in a climate of four seasons. Mostly, it is cold in the winter, and quite hot in the summer. A house, as a shelter, should be built to protect the people inside. Therefore alternatives requirements must be made so the house will be a comfort place, in any season.
Other than that aspect, a house that serves its occupants in an efficient way is also a basic need nowadays. With the demand of energy growing so high, and the amount of available resources declining, a way of life that uses less energy is a must. Therefore, we need a system that will be a solution to that, a passive house. Passive house is a house that not only gives an efficient use of energy, but also serves as a pleasant sanctuary. That concept can be achieved by creating a house with certain concept of land use, energy use, air ventilation, and so on.
In this project of passive house, the site is located in the suburbs of Sofia, the Lozen village. Sofia is an area that sits in the foot of the mountain massif Vitosha. The promising panorama of the mountain may be a certain aspect to the design. Vitosha itself is a mountain that becomes the home for a great diversity of flora and fauna. Comparative to our project, a house that is a home to its occupant. The relevancy between Vitosha as a house and resources giver of living beings can be used as a concept in this project.
The passive house is mainly concerned on how the air flowing inside the house is conditioned to match the comfort needs of the occupants. The way of conditioning the air here will also need to consume less energy than regular heating and cooling. Therefore, the use of natural ventilation is a necessity. The treatment for conditioning the outdoor air into a comfortable indoor air is to flow the air down below the ground. That is done because the temperature of the ground below is relatively stable year-round. The temperature measures around the average yearly temperature. So, if the air outside is considered to be cold, the temperature underneath is considerably warm. And vice versa when the outdoor air is considered to be hot.
Other than air circulation, the main need for a passive house is natural energy. In this project, we try to utilize the solar energy. The site orientation that we’ve decided is facing the west in the road side. Being in a relatively cold climate, especially in winter, our choice of solution is to tilt the house orientation to 45o. This is done so that the house will have two sides facing both east and west. Especially, being in a northern part of the equator, this passive house will have sun radiation coming from the southern area of earth. Tilted plan will also give a different experience to the occupants, creating a non-linear line that is capable of creating unique outdoor spaces.
In cold days, the capturing of the solar energy is used so that the energy can be stored inside the thermal mass, for example the dark colored concrete floor. The energy stored will later be used in the night, when there is no sun anymore, when the curtain will be drawn to prevent heat loss. To cope with the sun heat in the hot days, vegetation such as trees are planted in the certain area of the site. At winter they will wither, allowing for sun radiation to come through. At summer or spring season, they will grow and shade the house and the windows. The sun capturing system is backed up by glass openings. These glass windows are not only a utility but also an aesthetic element for the building.
The utilization of solar radiation is also implemented in creating warm water for bath or shower. This is done by creating a water vault under the roof above the bathroom. In the daytime, the roof will be heated, thus the water will be warm and can be used at nighttime.
Other aspect of the house is how it will generate complementary energy alternatives. Provided by the natural flow of winds, two house turbines are built to catch the kinetic energy. In a small cabin in the back of the house, the energy can be transformed and be used for night time exterior lighting.
On the other hand, the house takes shape that is similar to mountain with its triangular roof. This is a homage to the mountain of Vitosha. The use of materials such as stone, concrete, and woods is also a homage to the spirit of a suburban village, where the traditional and the modern life may meet.
Another homage to its context is the use of rose-detailed partition that is separating the entrance area and the kitchen area. This is like a remembrance for everybody that is coming over through the front door, that the house is located in the Bulgaria. Rose, as we all know, is the national flower of Bulgaria.
The concept of passive house is also about building a house that will leave if not at all then less ecological footprint. The materials used in the building may also be recycled things, from wooden fixtures to the furniture. The use of recycled materials means we use what already exist and not creating something that might harm the environment more.
At last, this passive house will serves its occupant by the utilization of natural energy in daily life, from the solar energy, geothermal energy, and wind energy. All those are implemented to gain a comfort level of living. Not only about the energy, this house also becomes a shelter for the family lives inside, with the richness of textures and outdoor sightseeing.