Le Minh Dai Dipl. Arch.

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As we knew, climate change is already a very serious global issue. The negative effects it will have on the ecosystem, the world economy and on living conditions are anticipated to be on a massive scale.

There is hardly any doubt that an energy system ready for the future will have to
be sustainable. Sustainable development is economic development that can be
continued in the future without causing significant problems for other people, the environment and future generations.

Passive House can play a major role in reducing the impact of global warming.
The energy requirement of a passive house is so low that a family will never again need to worry about energy price hikes. Passive Houses are virtually independentof fossil sources of energy and can be fully supplied with renewable energy if a compact heat pump unit is used in combination with an ecological electricity supplier. Due to the low energy requirement of passive houses the regionally available renewable energy sources are sufficient to provide a constant supply of energy for everyone.

Bulgaria’s mild climate puts it in a favourable position to introduce Passive Houses to focus the public attention to this new type of energy efficient buildings, and promote the design and construction of Passive Houses in Bulgaria and compared to the more severe climates prevalent in Europe.


House design towards a modern style with a total using area is ​​144,0 m². Design is used of recycled materials and local materials to reduce costs, construction easily, quickly and contribute to save nature resources. Materials used are shipping containers ( composed of two containers 20 'and two containers 40' ) and wooden pallets combined with polystyrene for the exterior wall construction, interior used yellow pine is material locally to compose super insulation.

Design applies techniques for ventilation and warm of solar-house, the using combination of Passivhaus low-energy building techniques and technologies. In addition the project also proposed using renewable energy from the sun, generate eco-energy and sustainability for electricity and hot water machines.

Sunspaces are suitable for family homes that it can offer a range of benefits. It can be a very comfortable and desirable seasonal living space, while making an impressive contribution to the heating of the building, supplying pre-heated air for internal ventilation and also providing cooling in the summer time through controlled ventilation. Moreover, it can create a buffer zone between living space and outdoor space.

Passive house principles

Passive house are designed to compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with principal windows oriented towards the equator south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain, especially in temperate climate regions, is secondary to minimizing the overall house energy requirements.

Sunspace design at center of the house, interior wall has also been painted in a light colour, making it the main buffer and allowing much radiation to escape from the sunspace due to reflection. Louver below glass roof provide shading for the house in the summer time. Window above glass roof are opened and closed automatically by the house management system when necessary to avoid overheating and overcooling.

Care was taken in the design of the sunspace so that it will, as far as possible, not obstruct daylight necessary to reach the inner rooms of the house. The shading devices have a highly reflective coating on the bottom side to help to illuminate the inner rooms with diffused day lighting when lowered.

The cooling of the Sunspace during warm weather is facilitated through a convection system by creating a channel between the insulated aluminum blinds and the glazed roof in combination with opening flaps on the very bottom and very top of the construction. But cold days, window is close and sun light enters the space. Here it heats the air which begins to move upwards and the warm air travelS through to the inner rooms, being moved by the convection motion. Cold air from inside the house is brought back to the sunspace at first floor, thus creating a circulation of warmer air.

“Passive” design well this system's underlying receptivity and retention capacity. Working with natural resources, free solar energy is captured and applied efficiently, instead of relying predominantly on ‘active’ systems to bring a building to ‘zero’ energy. High performance triple-glazed windows, super-insulation, an airtight building shell, limitation of thermal bridging and balanced energy recovery ventilation make possible extraordinary reductions in energy use and carbon emission.

In addition to using passive solar gain, design make extensive use of their intrinsic heat from internal sources such as waste heat from lighting, white goods (major appliances) and other electrical devices (but not dedicated heaters) as well as body heat from the people and other animals inside the building. This is due to the fact that people, on average, emit heat equivalent to 100 watts each of radiated thermal energy.

Beyond the recovery of heat by the heat recovery ventilation unit, a well designed Passive house in the Bulgaria climate should not need any supplemental heat source if the heating load is kept under 10W/m².

Because the heating capacity and the heating energy required by a passive house both are very low, the particular energy source selected has fewer financial implications than in a traditional building, although renewable energy sources are well suited to such low loads.

To minimize the total primary energy consumption, the many passive and active daylighting techniques are the first daytime solution to employ. For low light level days, non-daylighted spaces, and nighttime; the use of creative -sustainable lighting design using low-energy sources such as standard voltage compact fluorescent lamps and solid-state lighting with Light-emitting diode - LED lamps, organic light-emitting diodes, and PLED - polymer light-emitting diodes; and 'low voltage' electrical filament-Incandescent light bulbs, and compact Metal halide, Xenon and Halogen lamps, can be used.