ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN COMPETITION

FOR PASSIVE HOUSE IN BULGARIA

Daniel Koradzhiyski Dipl. Arch.

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It is a family two-storied house covering 163 m². On the first floor is placed the “day zone” that consists of a spacious living room with a kitchen and a dining corner. There are also a mechanical room and a toilet. The main entrance is from east close to the parking spot. The living room is well-lit from north, south and west which guarantee all day natural light in the space. A cozy porch on the east side of the house, formed for outdoor gathering of the family and guests is connected with a door right besides the kitchen. A beautiful stair leads to the gallery on the second floor, where are located two bedrooms with south exposure. One of the bedrooms has its own bathroom and an additional bathroom is provided for the other bedroom or guests. The two bedrooms share a common panoramic balcony facing the back-yard.
The house is designed with concrete base and timber wood construction for the body and the roof by considering all details and preventing any thermal bridges in the outher envelope of the house.
The house is considered as a passive building and as a result ot the measures taken for energy consumption decrease, Its total consumption of energy is below 120 kWh/m² per year, only 15 kWh/m² will be used for heating and ventilating the house.
The house orientation ensures a maximum sun gain of the south elevation. The long side of the second floor is east-west, so that both of the bedrooms are with south exposure.
The body shape is compact with no unnecessary bends or bays providing minimal external surface. It is a regular parallelepiped covered by a couple close roof. This allows to be formed an air-impenetrability box with high thermo-insulation properties. The U-value of the roof is 0.08 W/m²K , the one of the wall is 0.13 W/m²K , and that of the floor is 0.13 W/m²K.
All of the windows are 3-pane low-e-glazing.
The building is designed with a controlled ventilation system that supplies the rooms with fresh air and at the same, the polluted air is removed constantly out and is extracted over the roof, avoiding mixing fresh with polluted air. This eliminates the need of opening any windows and doors for airing. The system works with an air to air heat exchanger that warms the fresh air using the warmth of the exhaust air. The fresh air is pre-heated or cooled by a subsoil brine heat exchanger under the house. This pre-conditioning gains a significant amount of renewable geothermal energy. The incomming air always passes through a primary filter and is conducted at a very low speed so the residents can not feel and flows.
The north elevation is designed with wide-view curtain wall which enlighten the living-room and the gallery on the second floor. The interior doors of the house are furnished with flaps that allow natural air flow from north to south elevation during nice spring and autumn days.
On the south slope of the roof are mounted two sun-gaining panel systems. The first one is used for warming up a hot-water-container, situated in the attic space for the needs of the family. The water-heater works also with electricity in case the sun-gain is not enough. The second system is used for generating electricity and charging two batteries which supply the common needs of the house appliances.
The south elevation is designed with maximum glazing for increasing the natural sun-gain. The two bedrooms are provided with a glass-roofed balcony. In winter days the balcony is closed with removable front glass panels, which allows it to form a warm antechamber. It works as a thermo-barrier for the bedrooms and at the same time lets all of the sun light deeply in the bedrooms. In summer days the front glass panels are removed and the balcony is clearly opened towards the backyard. The glass roof is equipped with rolling sun-blinds that protect the rooms from the direct sun light. The window-doors of the bedrooms are furnished with wooden sun-blind lids that let the air passing through and at the same time prevent from the intense summer sun light. The balcony is also as a visor for the living-room downstairs. Two stackable sunblind doors prevent the living-room from overheating during the summer and in winters are neatly stacked under the balcony letting the light in.
Small energy saving electric heaters will be used for additional heating of the bedrooms when is needed. The chimney of the fireplace in the living-room is designed with an air cavity which will provide hot air conducted in the bedrooms through tubes with fans.
The rain-water from the roof is gathered in a water container under the porch and can be used for garden watering.
The ventilated façade is designed with high density stratified timber panels for external use. The panels are highly resistant to UV radiation and atmospheric agents, with a long life guaranteed qualities. Natural stone is used also for the external view of the house, for the plinth and the wall by the porch.
For the interior are considered only natural materials as stone, glass and wood. All the appliances are classified as energy class A for reducing the electricity consumption.