ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN COMPETITION

FOR PASSIVE HOUSE IN BULGARIA

Violeta Shatova Dipl. Arch.

(2016 - user rating)

Building-Metric-Sheet-9.xls
The idea for ultra-low energy building was developed by following principles for passive houses. It has a south exposure and south yard . A healthy lifestyle in this house is provided not only during the cold winter months, but during the hot summer months thanks to facing south to all residential rooms and good thermal insulation of all elements. There is a good thermal insulation of external walls through which is achieved heat transfer coefficient =0,0925 W / m² K. It reaches the thickness of the insulation about 38 sm. The roof heat transfer coefficient is 0, 0867 W / m².
For the house are used long-lasting and recyclable materials such as wood and mineral glass wool for insulation with U = 0,035 W / m² and combustibility class A1. The glass wool is made ​​of natural sand, one of the most common minerals on earth, to which is added to 80% recycled glass. Glass is a material that can be recycled indefinitely and product waste is minimized as it is returned to the initial manufacturing process.
This is a modern wood-frame house (prefabricated construction and wood exterior siding or another option could be heavily insulated timber panels). The coefficient of heat transfer through windows (glazing and frame) is less than 0,080 W / m² K. There is used 3 pane low e-glazing filled with inert gas - argon or krypton. For internal and intermediate glazing is used k-glass with special coatings that tend to reflect infrared radiation back to the room and not let them pass unhindered to the surrounding area.As a result the whole building is air-tight.Evenly throughout the year the temperature maintained the same for all rooms. Air temperature in the rooms is lower than inside surface temperature of the external walls with no more than 0,5-1 º C even when the temperature outside is -10 º C. This difference is practically not detectable, so the walls and the floor above the ground are perceived as warm. It has a very high thermal stability because the temperature inside is not changed between day and night temperatures in the hot summer months, and remains constant around for optimal health and performance air temperatures. The house does not rely on open windows, the key element is the ventilation system. This centralized system provides fresh air in the rooms in precise amount, supplies oxygen and discharge out of the already polluted air. The fresh air is taken from outside, passes through pipes to underground level to be heated in winter and cooled in the summer. It is heated prior to the required temperature - partly at the expense of heat exchangers and removing heat from air pollution discharges, and partly - of the heaters.
There are solar panels on the roof of the house (used for heating water) and rainwater harvesting system for domestic needs with reservoir beside the house. The rainwater can be used for laundry, toilet flashing, general cleaning in the home and garden irrigation. This way the water consuption can be reduced up to 50%.
Satisfying the green principles, to avoid using lots of concrete there are no foundations,instead the house sits on concrete piles and wooden stilts. It allows air to circulate under the building. The floor is properly insulated. This is also a faster and cheaper way to build, minimizes disturbance to site and environmental impact.
The main rectangular volume of the house is simple and the volume proportion is 1:2 (1300/760 sm). It does not have any unnecessary bays, bulges or arcades. The shape and the arrangement of the house are subordinate to functionality while is added a contemporary design. The main idea is the balcony and the porch to be built as a separate wooden structure with wooden columns and beams as well as the garage structure. In this way will be avoided thermal bridges,which are obtained when there are bulges of passive houses. There is an air gap between the separate structures to avoid thermal bridges. The wooden volume creates further dynamics in the design of the house, followed by severing of the main volume of the house with color and modern sloped roofs. The facades are divided into two colors of wood - darker and lighter which makes them more imaginative. About 40% of the south facade has been glazed to trap solar energy, and gives enough light into the spaces but the windows can be hidden from the sun, rain and wind, when required, behind timber panels (with the possibility of slip and rotation) placed on the wooden structure, against overheating of the rooms in summer or close the house when owners are away. The panels allowing daylight and air through and can be moved by sliding in many different ways to ensure full shade. The slanting roof is also calculated to allow passive solar heat gain in winter. The openings on the east are also protected by overhangs.
Another green idea of the building is to be surrounded by flower-stands which are also separated from the house volume. The garage of the house is outside, but the car is protected by surrounding flower-stands, wooden slats and covered with a slanting roof. This roof protects the area in front of the entrance from rain and snow and it is carried by its own constructure.
The house is elevated at a height of 1.00 m so that the front door entry and exit to the courtyard behind the house are accessible by stairs. The porch behind the house is large enough to be placed dining table and place for recreation. Part of the pool is situated under the porch and it's easy to jump right into it.
All lavatory and maintenance rooms are placed in the northern "buffer" zone, while all residential rooms facing south. On the first floor of the house are an entrance area, wc, mechanical room, staircase, living room, kitchen and storage room. On the second floor are a bathroom, master bedroom, bedroom and wardrobe room. This floor have been designed as a suspended gallery set back to allow a full hight space downstairs. In this way the bedrooms have a minimum external surface and the air between the walls makes the rooms better insulated. The internal wall is glazed again to the view of southern façade and have blinds for light control. The main bedroom has balcony approach. There is a small window in the bathroom for light penetration.
The house is affordable to build and purchase, long-lasting, with minimal impact on the local environment, and affordable to heat and cool throughout the life of the building.
The energy costs for heating are minimized-annual energy consumption for heating and ventilation ≤ 15 kWh/m2/year, total energy consumption of the building to suit your needs are no more than 120 kWh/m2/year, airtightness ≤ 0.6 ACH @ 50 pascal pressure (with good construction details), absence of thermal bridges ≤ 0.01 W / mK.