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Nikolay Ivanov Dipl. Arch.

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Passive house near village Lozen in town Sofia is developed according to the regulations for Passive house Bulgaria and observes the standard for a passive building.

The building is constructed by three contents which give plasticity and functionality with their disposition to each other in the composition solution. On elevation 0.00 is situated an entrance space which divides the building in two tracts – diurnal and nocturnal, and also serves as a buffer zone and as a connection of the building to the garden and the swimming pool from north, as well as to the area in front of the building from south. The aim is to give the tenants the opportunity to observe the two main areas to which the building separates the yard. That buffer zone is glazed from both sides and represents a kind of winter garden. Another approach that has been used is the planking itself, which has open fugue between the elements. In this way is created the feeling of quivering of the facade due to the small size of the raster used. The planks have a width of 6cm and the fugue are 1.0cm. An analogical approach is used in the design of the sunscreen devices. They use the same raster.
The two terraces on south are planned to be able to close completely and in this way to provide protection from the cold and the heat. All windows have an opening upper side which is used for natural ventilation. The windows are with U value=1.5
The total area of ​​the house is 180 m2, of which area of ​​the first floor is 105 m2 and the area of ​​the second floor is 75 m2.

The building is executed as a modular and prepared beforehand in a factory wooden construction, which system was used and created by architect N. Ivanov in the year 2009. Every module is 2.9m wide and is a separate unit, which combined with the rest forms the building’s composition. In regard to the energy expenditure, the proposed modular construction achieves an incredibly effective house-building. This type of building is characterized by the following advantages: building the modules entirely in factory conditions, entirely dry building, constructing and installation of the house in 4 to 6 weeks, high quality control, high degree of mechanization in the production, resistance to earthquakes and other influences and the usage of ecological materials pursuant to the environment in the production of which little energy is separated. The independent modules are designed in a way so that they can be connected to each other.
The thickness of the walls is 33.8cm, 25cm of which consists of the insulating layer. The wall are from type ventilated facade made of: planking, laths/air layer, waterproofing, OSB, min. wool, vapor barrier and plasterboard.
The floors are filled with: overlay, wadding, plywood, min. wool, vapor barrier and OSB or a suspended ceiling.
The roof is designed as flat on which are installed solar collectors.
It consists of: waterproof, mortar for slope, waterproof three-ply, min. wool, vapor barrier and a suspended ceiling.

Energy Efficiency:
The used quantity of insulation and approaches in the construction of the walls and floors guarantees an excellent microclimate in the rooms. In addition to that is the usage of sunscreen devices which have a simplified construction and particularly - a frame of steel on which is put the planking.
In the solution are provided 27 solar collectors with a total amount of power 7.155KWp, which will be used for hot water and electricity production.
Moreover, the construction solution provides a heat-pump with power of 15 Kw, which is connected to the building’s installation and will provide the necessary quantity of energy for heating.
The application of buffer zones, like the entrance space and the terraces for example, is a solution with numerous advantages. Some of those advantages are the circulation of air as well as the lack of extreme temperature differences between the microclimate in the rooms and the outside environment.