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Anton Shterev, Dipl. Arch.

(284 - user rating)


SUBJECT: Passive house in the village of Lozen

LOCATION: Lozen, near Sofia, Bulgaria

I. Basis of Design:
This site is developed based on the job. All the requirements from our side of the project. For job requirements are extremely low power consumption. Distances to the regulation line be - front and rear-5m, remove - 3m. The house must be built with area from 120 -180 square meters and include a dining room, kitchen, two bedrooms (min), one full bathroom, toilet or bathroom at the discretion of the team. Select the orientation of the house property. The use of sustainable, including innovative technologies and methods that lead to further save energy and natural resources concepts to neutralize the pollution, the use of local and recycled materials are advantageous for design. The project should aim to achieve the passive house standard:
Annual energy consumption for heating and ventilation ≤ 15 kWh/m2/year
Total energy consumption of the building to suit your needs no more ≤ 120 kWh/m2/year
Airtightness ≤ 0.6 ACH @ 50 pascal pressure
Absence of thermal bridges ≤ 0.01 W/mK

II. Purpose of Design:
Aim to prepare na project is to design a house as possible less energy consumption and thermal losses. This project is located in the village of Lozen. Thanks to that achieves a good passive house.

III. Situational decision:
The building is located at the north end of the property and has full exposure to the south. Due to avoiding energy losses Res windows on the north side of the building. The approach of vehicles on the property from the north. It is envisaged that a parking space. The entrance of the building is on the north eastern side of the building. The plot has a slope to the northwest to southeast. Thanks to this opens a fine view of the building to the rear yard and higher plants do not overshadow.

IV.Planning and functional solution:
Silhouette and functional organization of the site are dictated by the job site and the quest for optimal functionality of the building.

At this elevation are the building entrance, living room, kitchen, dining room, technical room, bathroom, toilet and technical room. All rooms are spatially related.
LIVING ROOM - total area of this room is 38.75 m²
KITCHEN - total area of this room is 10.40 m²
DINING ROOM - total area of this room is 8,50 m²
Technical room - total area of this room is 3,36 m²
Bathroom and WC - total area of this room is 11,50 m²

At this elevation there are two bedrooms, stairs with interior balcony and bathroom. The connection to the lower floor is by stairs preudolyava height of 2.80 m. All rooms are spatially related.
Bedroom 1- total area of this room is 13.32 m²
Bedroom 2- total area of this room is 10.07 m²
Interior balcony- total area of this room is 14.07 m²
Stairs- this area of the room 5.85 m²
Bathroom with toilet- total area of this room is 3.85 m²

V. Constructed building:
The newly constructed building - passive building is built of monolithic reinforced concrete structure, which consists of beams, columns and slabs. To provide the necessary slope of the roof is reinforced concrete slab, which is banked 6º.

VI. Heating the building:
In the newly designed building two methods are used for space heating by geothermal energy:
- The first method - using solar energy. Solar energy is inexhaustible quantities in Our unrecorded nature - air, water and earth. In instances we use the heat pump energy that makes this possible and affordable for you. It is used for domestic heating and hot water supply. This pump can deliver up to 80% of the energy required for heating and hot water needs for free!

It takes less than 20% of circulating energy in the form of electricity to maintain the system without the need for additional heating. You need only one pump.
The heating part is reduced significantly by markedly lower heat emission from the outer surface of the house. Installing a heat pump, you can further reduce the remaining energy requirements, CO2 emissions, the greenhouse effect, leaving the energy source available for future generations. Compared with traditional heating methods costs are drastically reduced. This pump not only pollutes the environment but save you money. You can use existing energy sources that are constantly renewable by the sun.
The temperature in the earth remains relatively constant throughout the year. Heat pump raises these temperatures to usable values. During construction of your house in the yard can be mounted horizontal ground collector. He learns through geothermal energy solution of glycol in the collector pipe and transports it to the pump. The heat pump converts the energy from the earth into heat energy. The chilled glycol solution and returns to the closed underground collector and the process repeats.
Pump plays enough energy for heating and domestic hot water even in freezing temperatures. You do not need a central boiler. The size of the collector depends on your energy requirements for heating the house. The surrounding land is cooled collector during the heating season. At elevated temperatures in the spring sun and rain, warm earth again and the cycle repeats.
- Second method - Geothermal probe works as a horizontal collector. It is installed at a depth between 30 and 100 meters into the ground. Geothermal probe uses very little space and can be used as a collector system for upgrading the existing heating system with heat pumps.

VII. Cool the building:
The building provided two methods to cool the building:
- First method - Active summer air conditioning a heat pump. Temrmopompata running around like a refrigerator. The main objective is heating, but using special equipment, its function may have, and refrigeration. Using the existing heating system, heat pump can reduce room temperatures by 5 - 10 degrees in summer. This cooling system works reliably even under prolonged heat with remarkable efficiency and productivity.
- Second method - Ventilation of the building. It is made mainly to keep the air in the building. During the summer months Special Weapon ventilation of the facade opens Tolian ventilate pent air during the day. This system works only in the early morning hours spent to be to get cold air.

VIII. Fresh air in the building:
Bringing fresh air into the building is through a comfortable ventilation resumption of energy (recuperator). The effect of this system is in this way brings in fresh air in the recuperator filter and subsequently imported into the premises. Subsequently exhaust air is removed from the premises and go outside.

IX. Solar energy:
In addition to space heating solar energy is used for extraction of electricity through solar batteries. They bring the necessary electrical energy consumption of the building. Located on the roof and remain constant sunlight from the sun. They also namyalya a minimum power consumption of the industrial istochnitsi.

X. Extraction of water:
For extraction of water is used well located in the yard. By extracting water pump for poteblenieto the building. Due to the increased drilling potreblebie low water from the industrial istochnitsi. This water is used in heating the building. All households are covered by it.

XI. Filtering the water:
By filtering the water used for household passive entering a building? level. This water is used for watering the yard. With the filter pump is achieved by - good filtration results in the building.

XII. Isolation materiyal:
The building materiyal the following:
- Bricks poroterm - 25 cm thick. with 0,190 W / (mk)
- Rock wool - thickness of 20cm. with 0,037 W / (mk)
- Isolation EPS - 5 cm thick. with 0,035 W / (mk)
- Isolation XPS - 5 cm thick. with 0,028 W / (mk)
- PVC joinery - Coefficient of thermal conductivity 0,94 W/m2K, index of isolation from external noise: 47 dB over.
The windows used in the project - with pvc windows bluEvolution achieves Uf value of 1.0 W / m²k. Used SIP thermally separated reinforcement, which reduces the value of Uf to 0.94 W / m²k. With its design width of 92 mm and a height of 118 mm of the profile frame and sash combination bluEvolution combines excellent stability and sleek look of the finished window.
The system allows building of glass and 60 mm, which allows to use the latest advances in glass production and glass. All profiles correspond to RAL bluEvolution class with 3 mm wall thickness. Three seals the opening parts contribute to the functional values and excellent thermal and sound insulation of the finished pvc windows. High bluEvolotion qualities make it ideal for building a "passive house" and a means of preventing climate change from greenhouse gases.
In developing the SIP bluEvolution designers have paid special attention to environmental protection, climate protection and resource conservation by allowing the complete recycling system and excellent energy efficiency (Uf = 1.0 W / m²k). This indicator of energy efficiency system bluEvolution is a leading manufacturer of windows for passive houses.
Bricks POROTERM - as a leading manufacturer of ceramic tiles worldwide Wienerberger strives to meet individual needs of their local markets.
POROTHERM 25 NF Light combines some of the advantages of bricks POROTHERM with low volume weight and attractive price of traditional bricks per m2 finished wall. The advantages of this new product compared with ordinary bricks are entirely in his favor:
Lower volume weight, which saves reinforcement for the substructure;
* Three times lower cost solution without the vertical joints and significantly less horizontal joints to bricks;
* Larger sizes / three fours as / and perfect geometry, enabling faster and more precise work, and reducing solutions for finishing operations;
* Tongue and groove assembly / NF /, which compacts the vertical masonry joints and leads straight;
* More than twice higher than the minimum required compressive strength 7,5 N/mm2;
* A dense grid for better sound / rotation of ceramics air - Ceramic /;
* Reliable plugging and suspension of heavy objects;
* With 30% more insulating power.

Rockwool - for thermal and acoustic insulation - Rockwool Airrock LD, λ = 0,037 W/mK, Dimensions 600/1000/50 mm., 7.20 m2 in the package. Density min 40 kg/m3. For thermal insulation, fire and acoustic insulation systems Knauf.
Slabs of rock mineral wool Rockwool Airrock used for insulation, sound insulation and fire ventilated facades, sandwich panels, partition walls drywall systems (in systemic Knauf, Rigips, etc.).. Rockwool AIRROCK is suitable for roofs (very good heat conductivity λ = 0,037 W/mK) over or between rafters. Backing with glass veil acoustic products are used for ventilated facades, above suspended ceilings, cladding panels, insulation behind the wood paneling and others.

Isulation EPS - Expanded polystyrene (AUSTROTHERM EPS 70) Austrotherm production. Suitable for insulation of the facade.
Insulating panels of expanded polystyrene.
General technical characteristics:
Composition: Expanded Polystyrene / EPS / - white
Standard: BS EN 13163
Dimensions of plate: length - 1000 mm width - 500 mm thick - 10 ÷ 400mm.
Flammability: B1 / hard combustible /
Class of smoking: Q3
Class of melt formation: TR1
Behaviour in fire: EN 13 164: E
Treatment: maximum limit of application temperature: 95º C.

Isulation XPS - based on the same polymer as EPS, but different technology to create foam determines the difference in some properties. Extrusion is getting the foam structure of polystyrene beans, mixed with foaming agents and other additives by extrusion and application of mechanical pressure and high temperatures to produce a viscous liquid which upon cooling to download and molded end products. This results in plates with the XPS mikrozarnesta microporous structure of the closed spherical cells with significant density and strength of the material - and therefore 25-40kg/m3 200 500kRa. Coefficient moves within 0,028-0,040 W / mºC and closed lattice of micropores and hydrophobic smooth surface ensure practical water and paronepropusklivost the plates of XPS. Sound insulation qualities are very similar to those of EPS. Operational temperature range is extended as possible and use the material at temperatures below -40 ` C and 60 ` C. Failure to enter the water in the cells and pores of the material provides excellent resistance to cold and maintaining internal links in its structure. Obviously, extruded polystyrene offers better mechanical and thermo qualities than EPS, but it determines significant difference in the value of both.
Thanks to the included inhibiting additives, XPS, and not easily self-extinguish, but because of its organic nature, can not be exposed to open fire and to this end it is necessary to provide minimum fire protection (coated cardboard or other material). Extruded polystyrene, expanded as well, have a significant chemical resistance and does not react with solutions of most inorganic acids, bases and salts, including construction mineral solutions, but must avoid contact with petroleum products, aromatic alcohols and polyester resins. Furthermore, it favors the development of resistant microorganisms contained in soil aggressive organic and inorganic substances, making it ideal for implementation of groundwater outside insulation. With prolonged exposure to sunlight as possible damage to the surface due to the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation, so we must provide the material in sun longer storage outdoors.
Extruded polystyrene is also available in the form of slabs of different sizes and standard thicknesses from 20 to 120mm, with some companies, at the request of the customer, can provide other thicknesses. The entry includes the performance of heavy duty thermal insulation of foundations, floating floors and heavy roofs. This is due to the high mechanical strength and water resistance thereof. Proofing agents, soil degradation allows direct contact with soil layers without the need for protective waterproof coating.
Watertight integrity of the XPS is a major asset in the performance of thermal insulation below zero - the foundations and basement walls, wet rooms and industrial floors. Considerable compressive strength of XPS makes seamless implementation of floating floors and railways, where the concrete or the embankment lie directly on the insulation layer.
The load of usable roof also transmit easily and securely from insulation boards to the substructure. XPS is one of the few materials that can be used in implementing the inverted roof. In that decision, it provides very good protection from solar radiation waterproofing and effective thermal insulation.
Although similar in origin, both types of polystyrene foam used in construction are different applications for efficient thermal insulation of the individual parts. The rational combination of two materials, combined with their undeniable thermal properties is a prerequisite for the safe isolation of the building to heat the environment.
According to a research on energy used for cooking is associated with the disposal of a significant percentage of the total mass emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides.
The production of EPS and XPS does not release any harmful substances, so the construction of polystyrene insulation system not only saves energy costs, quickly returning the initial investment, but also plays an important role in environmental protection.
Building on a polystyrene insulation reduces energy costs by two thirds, which, combined with the possibility of full recycling, no harmful emissions even when burning at the speed setting makes it a preferred and reliable material.


(arch. Anton Shterev)



Haskovo 6300, boulevard Rakovski 26,
2nd floor, office 216

phone number: 088/9638391